The Vedas are  the most holy and treasured texts of India. Thus Vedas are  collection of prayers, hymns which  were received by the  rishis ( as shruti, divine revelation. As mantras and hymns, these works were actively recited out loud to  praise and invoke the powers of the spiritual realms, and had been verbally passed on for many generations  later which  was written down on delicate palm leaves.

The Vedas provided  philosophical foundations and spiritual  core for the future development of both yoga and Hinduism.

There  are four Vedas they are :

1. Rig-Veda

The oldest  among all is Rig veda dating back to 1500 B.C. and is the most revered and important of the four. The Rig-Veda’s collection of hymns and mantras were used  earlier to invoke courage, happiness, health, peace, prosperity, success, and wisdom etc.  In the Rig-Veda we  also learn the  famous Gayatri mantra, which is still used today for its potent spiritual qualities.

There  also we  find the first use and definition of the word yoga. These verses are the foundation and material for the remaining Vedas.

2.Sama Veda

The Sama Veda is a Veda purely a devotional collection of melodies (saman) which was used to elevate one’s consciousness. In Samantha Veda the hymns  are combined with musical notes, and their content was heavily drawn from the Rig-Veda, providing no distinctive lessons of their own.

This use of combined  music and with mantras formed the foundation for the Bhakti yoga practice of kirtan, devotional chanting.

3.Yajur Veda

The Yajur Veda is the Veda devoted entirely to the worship of the deities and the instruction for the technical aspects of ceremonies. The Yajur Veda for Vedic priests served as a handbook, who executed sacrificial acts through simultaneously chanting the mantras and hymns  while following the sacrificial formula (yajus).

4. Atharva  Veda

The   Atharva Veda consists of  charms and spells to dispel evil, misfortune and diseases. Atharva vedas hymns are of a more diverse character than the Rig-Veda and were composed of a simpler language making them more accessible to the general population.

The Vedas also expounded a diverse set of practices, concepts and ideas,  among them was an primitive form of yoga as well as one of the world’s oldest, diverse and complex spiritual philosophies. Six main philosophy schools emerged from these teachings. These Darshanas are  all systematically represent the core ideas illuminated in the Vedas.

All these philosophical systems draw from the same source, they are seen to complement rather than compete with each other. Over the period  of  time Vaisheshika, Nyaya, and Mimamsa have become somewhat obsolete and are not actively practiced.

Samkhya, Vedanta, and Yoga continue to have a strong importance and influence in Indian thought and many of the practices that evolved out of these Darshanas continue to be practiced today.

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